Location of Repository

Menopausal hot flushes after breast cancer

By D.R. Fenlon, J.L. Corner and J. Haviland


The study aimed to improve understanding of the natural history and impact of hot flushes after breast cancer.<br/>Data were collected from women participating in an RCT of relaxation to reduce the incidence of flushes from breast cancer follow-up clinics from two hospitals in South-East England. Repondents were 150 women experiencing hot flushes following completion of primary treatment for breast cancer. This study utilized a flush diary, the Hot Flushes and Night Sweats Questionnaire (HFNSQ), Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy with Endocrine Subscale (FACT-ES) and Spielberger State/Trait Anxiety Index (STAI) as the main outcome measures. The study found that in this sample, 51 (34%) women experienced flushes more than five<br/>years after diagnosis and 75 (50%) more than 5 years after menopause. Sleep disruption occurred in 90 women (72% of those that returned diaries), affecting half of the nights they recorded. The mean problem rating on the HFNSQ was 4.85 out of 10. A peak incidence of flushes was apparent around 10 a.m. in women taking tamoxifen. It was concluded that hot flushes after breast cancer may be long-lasting and cause sleeping difficulties for many women. Tamoxifen may affect the diurnal pattern of flushes. After breast cancer, the duration of flushes, potential distress and disruption to women’s lives should not be underestimated and appropriate interventions should be offered

Year: 2009
OAI identifier: oai:eprints.soton.ac.uk:154067
Provided by: e-Prints Soton

Suggested articles



  1. (2000). A prospective population-based study of menopausal symptoms. doi
  2. (1995). A psychological analysis of menopausal hot flushes. doi
  3. (2004). Accuracy of subjective hot flush reports compared with continuous sternal skin conductance monitoring. doi
  4. (2000). Acute menopause symptoms during adjuvant systemic treatment for breast cancer: a casecontrol study. doi
  5. (2004). Anxiety and quality of life of women who receive radiation or chemotherapy for breast cancer. doi
  6. (1999). Assessment of quality of life in women undergoing hormonal therapy for breast cancer: validation of an endocrine symptom subscale for the FACT-B. doi
  7. (2003). Can acupuncture ease the symptoms of menopause? doi
  8. (2001). Circadian rhythm of objectively recorded hot flashes in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. doi
  9. (2005). Clinical experience with venlafaxine in the treatment of hot flushes in women with a history of breast cancer.
  10. (1998). Definitions of hot flashes in breast cancer survivors. doi
  11. (2006). Hormone replacement therapy in breast cancer survivors. doi
  12. (2005). Management of postmenopausal hot flushes with venlafaxine hydrochloride: a randomized, controlled trial. doi
  13. (2004). Measuring hot flashes: summary of a National Institutes of Health workshop. doi
  14. (1999). Menopausal symptoms in breast cancer survivors. doi
  15. (2006). Menopausal symptoms in women treated for breast cancer: the prevalence and severity of symptoms and their perceived effects on quality of life. doi
  16. (2004). Menopausal symptoms in women with breast cancer: prevalence and treatment preferences. doi
  17. (2008). Menopause after breast cancer: a randomised, controlled trial of relaxation training to reduce hot flushes.
  18. (2003). Menopause after breast cancer: a survey on breast cancer survivors. doi
  19. (2001). Methodologic lessons learned from hot flash studies.
  20. (2003). Paroxetine controlled release in the treatment of menopausal hot flashes: a randomized controlled trial. doi
  21. (2002). Prevalence and treatment of menopausal symptoms among breast cancer survivors. doi
  22. (2006). Quality of life in the intergroup exemestane study: a randomized trial of exemestane versus continued tamoxifen after 2–3 years of tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with primary breast cancer. doi
  23. (2004). Quality of life of postmenopausal women in the Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination (ATAC) Adjuvant Breast Cancer Trial. doi
  24. (1999). Relaxation therapy as an intervention for hot flushes in women with breast cancer. doi
  25. (1997). Reliability and validity of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy – Breast quality of life instrument. doi
  26. (1983). State-Trait Inventory for Adults: Sampler Set, Manual, Test and Scoring Key. Mind Gardens,
  27. (2009). The Authors Journal compilation ©
  28. (2005). The BCPT Symptom Scales: a Measure of Physical Symptoms for Women Diagnosed With or at Risk for Breast Cancer. doi
  29. (2004). The effect of education in managing side effects in women receiving chemotherapy for treatment of breast cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum 31, E16– E23. doi
  30. (2001). The physiological basis. In:
  31. (2002). Use of complementary/ alternative therapies by women with advanced-stage breast cancer. doi
  32. (2002). Venlafaxine for the control of hot flashes: results of a longitudinal continuation study. doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.