ground procedure. The first step in constructing the ground procedure is to convert inference problems to a simple normal form. 1 Clausal Normal Form Resolution is a refutation technique. To show that \Sigma j= \Phi resolution derives a contradiction from \Sigma [ f:\Phig. We will simply assume that we are given a finite set of formulas \Gamma and that we wish to show that \Gamma is unsatisfiable. The first step in resolution theorem proving is to put the formulas in \Gamma in a certain normal form. To define this normal form we need some additional terminology. Definition An atomic formula is either a proposition symbol, a predicate application of the form P (t 1 ; \Delta \Delta \Delta ; t n ), or an equation t 1 = t 2 between two terms. Definition A<
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