This paper presents an electrical equivalent circuit model for lithium-ion batteries used<br/>for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The model has two RC networks characterizing battery<br/>activation and concentration polarization process. The parameters of the model are identified using<br/>combined experimental and Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) recursive methods. The open-circuit<br/>voltage and ohmic resistance of the battery are directly measured and calculated from<br/>experimental measurements, respectively. The rest of the coupled dynamic parameters, i.e. the RC<br/>network parameters, are estimated using the EKF method. Experimental and simulation results are<br/>presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed circuit model and parameter identification<br/>techniques for simulating battery dynamics
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