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1. BACKGROUND

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Recent estimates suggest that there has been a 10 fold increase in the release of nitrogen compounds from anthropogenic sources over the past century (Barker et al, 2004). Nitrogen is often the limiting factor for primary production in many terrestrial ecosystems (Stevens et al, 2004, Barker 2004, Cornell, 2003); thus eutrophication will inevitably result in a shift in the associated ecosystem structures (Milne and Hartley, 2001). Such changes include the conversion of heathland to grassland (Barker et al, 2004), increase in forest tree growth (Emmett 2002), and shift of bryophyte dominance in Bogs and Fens (Cunha et al 2002). The resulting alteration of the nutrient cycle makes the habitats more accommodating to nitrophilic species suppressing previously common species and reducing overall species richness (Stevens et al 2004, Barker et al 2004, Cunha et al 2002). Nitrogen deposition comes from both organic and inorganic sources. Organic ammonia (NH3) predominantly comes from the application of fertiliser to fields (Cornell 2003), and any effects seen are close to the source. In contrast, Nitrogen Oxide (NO) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), some of the products of burning of fossi

Year: 2014
OAI identifier: oai:CiteSeerX.psu:10.1.1.418.4067
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