dual inhibitor of cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) and the replication factor PCNA, which plays a role as a downstream mediator of the cell-cycle arrest induced by the tumor suppressor p53. To determine whether inactivation of downstream targets of p53 might contribute to cellular transformation, we have examined the integrity of the p21 gene in 36 invasive ductal breast carcinomas. Direct sequence analysis of the polymerase chain reaction-amplified p21 gene revealed aCtoTtransition in codon 94 that caused the substitution of a tryptophan for an arginine in a tumor specimen. This mutation was not detected in normal DNA extracted from the same patient nor in a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism of 50 unrelated individuals, indicating that it corresponds to a tumor-specifi
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