During heat shock of chicken reticulocytes the synthesis of a single heat shock protein, HSP70, increases greater than 10-fold, while the level of HSP70 mRNA increases less than 2-fold during the same period. Comparison of the in vivo levels of HSP70 and B-globin synthesis with their mRNA abundance reveals that the translation of HSP7O mRNA is repressed in normal reticulocytes and is activated upon heat shock. In its translationally repressed state HSP70 mRNA is functionally associated with polysomes based on sedimentation analysis of polysomes from untreated or puromycin-treated cells and by analysis of in vitro %unoff” translation products using isolated polysomes. Treatment of control and heat shocked cells with the initiation inhibitor pactamycin reveals that elongatio
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