frequently found in the sera of patients with lupus erythematosus and Sjögren’s syndrome-related disorders. Their location in the cell is subject to continuous debate in literature. It has been postulated that 52 kD Ro (52 Ro) co-localizes with the 60 kD Ro autoantigen in the nucleus, while others demonstrated that 52 Ro is primarily cytoplasmic. In order to resolve this controversy, 52 Ro protein was tagged with green fluorescence protein, overexpressed in A431 keratynocytes, and its location determined using fluorescence confocal microscopy. The intracellular location of the fusion protein was revealed via GFP autofluorescene and indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, using purified anti-52 Ro antibodies. The cellular locations of native 52 Ro in normal human keratinocytes, and in human A431 keratinocyte and HepG2 hepatocyte cell lines were similarly determined by utilizing 2 human anti-52 Ro antibodies purified from two different non-overlapping fragments of recombinant 52 Ro. In addition, colocalization of 52 Ro with mitochondria, lysosomes and endosomes was evaluated. It was found that both the 52 Ro-GFP fusion protein and th
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