Abstract − The conventional concept of consistency in multiple evaluations of the same measurand is based on statistical error analysis. This concept is based on regarding the evaluations as realizations from sampling probability distributions of potential evaluations which might be obtained in contemplated replications. The expected values of the sampling distributions are regarded as unknown but the standard deviations are assumed to be known. The multiple evaluations are said to be statistically consistent if their dispersion agrees with the hypothesis that the sampling distributions of potential evaluations have equal expected values. As the science and technology of measurement advanced, the limitations of the statistical error analysis view of uncertainty in measurement became a hindrance to communication of scientific and technical measurements
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