Ezetimibe is a relatively new drug that inhibits the absorption of dietary cholesterol in the small intestine. It is an LDL-cholesterol lowering medication that acts directly on the intestine by inhibiting Niemann-Pick C1 Like1 (NPC1L1). Recently, results of the ARBITER 6–HALTS trial (Arterial Biology for the Investigation of the Treatment Effects of Reducing Cholesterol 6–HDL and LDL Treatment Strategies) and the ENHANCE trial (Ezetimibe and Simvastatin in Hypercholesterolemia Enhances Atherosclerosis Regression) showed that ezetimibe had no effect on atherosclerosis despite producing a marked decrease in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c). Recent studies show a potential benefit of ezetimibe in treating insulin resistance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, gallstones and dyslipidaemia associated with chronic renal failure and organ transplantation. All of these conditions are known to be associated with an increase in risk of cardiovascular disease and further studies are needed to assess the potential benefits of ezetimibe in these therapeutics areas
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