Supervisor: Dedicated my parents for their never ending support no matter what. Acknowledgments I am very grateful to have had the good fortune of working in the Atom Optics Laboratory of Mark Raizen at the University of Texas. Mark’s dedication not only to physics, but to his family, his students, and the physics department provided both inspiration and challenge. His enthusiasm has provided this lab with a constant supply of both the creative and material wealth necessary for the tremendous success we’ve all enjoyed. One Mark’s most important talents is his ability to hire talented people who can work together pleasantly and fruitfully. Though we often joke about not having a life as grad students, my coworkers in this lab have been a constant source of support, entertainment, and professional collaboration. I would like to thank Pat Morrow who got me started in this lab, and taught me the in’s and out’s of daily lab operation. I would also like to thank John Robinson who provided a wonderful example to follow as a person and a physicist, as well as patient and endless help. Our postdoc Fred Moore not only was a
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