1. A primer on biopsychology and its methods 2. Hallmarks of motivation 2.1 Motivated behavior comes in two basic flavors: approach and avoidance motivation 2.2 Motivation consists of two distinct phases 2.3 Many qualitatively different types of reward can give rise to motivation 2.4 Motivation is dynamic 2.5 Motivation can be need-driven, incentive-driven, or both 2.6 Motivation is characterized by flexibility of cue-reward and means-end relationships 2.7 Motivation has conscious and nonconscious aspects 2.8 Summary 3. Brain structures generally involved in motivation 3.1. Amygdala: recognizing rewards and punishments at a distance 3.2 The mesolimbic dopamine system: scaling the “magnetic ” pull of incentives 3.3 The orbitofrontal cortex: evaluating rewards and punishments 3.4 The lateral prefrontal cortex: Motivational regulation and overrid
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