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Augmenting Nature’s Productivity as Technological Substitution Substitution Possibilities for Ecosystem Services Implementing Technologies to Replace or Extend Nature’s Services Bibliography Glossary

By Indur M. Goklany


Ecosystem Services are the benefits that ecosystems provide human beings. They include critical provisioning services such as food, timber, fiber, fuel and energy, and freshwater; regulating services that affect or modify, for instance, air and water quality, climate, erosion, diseases, pests and natural hazards; cultural services such as fulfilling spiritual, religious and aesthetic needs; and supporting services such as soil formation, photosynthesis, and nutrient cycling. This chapter doesn’t explicitly address supporting services; they are implicit in the ability of ecosystems to deliver the other services. Technology includes tangible man-made objects or “hardware ” (such as tools and machines) and humandevised intangibles or “software ” (such as ideas, knowledge, programs, spreadsheets, operating rules, management systems, institutional arrangements, trade and culture). Substitute (or replacement) technologies are technologies that wholly substitute for some facet or portion of goods and services that ecosystems provide for humanity. Technological augmentation of ecosystem services is the increase, through technological intervention, in the production of goods and services that nature provides. By helping fulfill humanity’s needs while limiting its direct demand on nature, such augmentation substitutes for natural inputs from ecosystems. Augmenting Nature’s Productivity as Technological Substitutio

Year: 2014
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