Fault tolerance is an important design criterion for robotic systems operating in hazardous or remote environments. This article addresses the issue of tolerating a free-swinging joint failure by focusing on how to best configure a slow-moving manipulator before a failure. Three scalar measures of fault susceptibility are defined using joint torques/forces, acceleration, and swing angles. Minimizing these measures is an approach to achieving fault tolerance, and for this, algorithms to calculate their gradients are given. The formulas are valid for general n-link manipulators. I. Introduction Robots that operate in remote or hazardous environments must be used in a manner that reflects the implications of failure scenarios on system performance [1, 2, 3]. Kinematically redundant robots have been proposed for use in such environments due to their dexterity before a failure and ability to continue operation after a failure [4, 5, 6]. A crucial component of any system designed to tolera..
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