Challenges and constraints facing design consultancies in three English city-regions, Regional Studies. There is some debate as to whether creative industries can thrive in second-tier industrial city-regions, as well as in leading global cities. This paper uses the results of firm interviews with design consultancies to examine their experiences in three industrial cities in the United Kingdom: Manchester; Newcastle, and Birmingham. It highlights the major constraints on growth in each city and it emphasizes the quantity and quality of demand, and the availability of skilled labour. It considers the effects of design and cultural policy initiatives and finds that most measures are perceived to have had only ambiguous and minor supportive impact
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