Community of inquiry framework: New research on the future of online learning

Abstract

Dr. Peter Shea, Assistant Professor of Educational Theory and Practice at SUNY-Albany, presented a workshop covering the following topics: * How do people learn? * What conditions lead to learning? * How do people learn online? * What conditions lead to online learning? * A model for quality online learning environments * Research on components of the model * Context -Why we need to be interested in these topics…Community of Inquiry Framework: New Research on the Future of Online Learning Peter Shea Educational Theory and Practice & College of Computing and Information University at Albany State University of New YorkTopics How do people learn? What conditions lead to learning? How do people learn online? What conditions lead to online learning? A model for quality online learning environments Research on components of the model Context -Why we need to be interested in these topics… OverviewQuick Quiz: The processing power available in the original 30 ton, 18,000 tube ENIAC computer is now available in which common device?Is it a Laptop?Cellphone? Really small cellphone? Correct answer: It’s a musical greeting card… Some advances have been made in technology…and in Online Learning...UMUC In FY 2009, UMUC had over 196,000 online course enrollments. UMUC offers more than 100 bachelor and master degree programs and certificates fully online. In FY 2009 UMUC offered close to 760 distinct courses online. Summary Approximately 4.5 million students studying in online environments in higher education (Allen & Seaman, 2009). The Department of Education estimates these students generated 12 million online college course enrollments in 2007 (Parsad & Lewis, 2008). More than 1 in 4 US college students take at least one online course each year. Growth in online instruction is 6 times rate of growth in classroom instruction.OK – sure its growing, but is it any good? Is anyone learning anything?Learning Outcomes are Better: Three Recent Reviews Bernard, M., Abrami, P., Lou, Y. Borokhovski, E., Wade, A., Wozney, L., Wallet, P., Fiset, M. Euang, B. (2004). How does distance education compare with classroom instruction? A meta-analysis of the empirical literature. Review of Educational Research Vol. 74, No. 3, pp. 379-439. Means, B., Toyama, Y., Murphy, R., Bakia, M. & Jones, K. (2009). Evaluation of evidence-based practices in online learning: A meta-analysis and review of online learning studies. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Evaluation, and Policy Development. Zhao, Y., Lei, J., Yan, B., Lai, C., Tan, H.S., (2005). What Makes the Difference? A Practical Analysis of Research on the Effectiveness of Distance Education. Teachers College Record Volume 107, Number 8, pp. 1836–1884. * Learning outcomes are better – especially under certain conditions…get back to this later.Quality of Outcomes: Results of Meta Meta- Analyses of OL vs. CI Small but significant differences in favor of OLL…Lets unpack some of this... What does it mean to learn anyway?A task for you Now – with a partner, answer the following questions - How do people learn best? What conditions are necessary for learning to occur? Especially in higher education…Community Assessment Centered A Developing Conceptual Framework for Online Learning Knowledge Centered Learner Centered Bransford, et al (2002) “How People Learn”Knowledge Centered –Outcomes oriented - knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed for successful transfer. Learner Centered - connect to the strengths, interests, and preconceptions of learners and help them learn about themselves as learners. Community Centered –environment where students feel safe to ask questions, learn to work collaboratively, and are helped to develop lifelong learning skills. Assessment Centered - provide multiple opportunities to make students’ thinking visible so they can receive feedback and be given a chance to revise. “How People Learn” Framework (Bransford et al, 2002) People learn best in environments that are:Another task for you How do people learn best online? What conditions are necessary for learning to occur online. (especially in higher education)The question we want to address: What makes a good, higher education, online-learning environment?What makes a good, higher education, online-learning environment? To answer this you need to know: 1) What makes a good learning environment “offline”? 2) What are important, specific, best practices for adult learners in higher education? 3) What are important specific, best practices for adult online learners in higher education?What makes a good, higher education, online-learning environment? To answer this you need to know: 1) What makes a good learning environment generally? Again the Brandsford et. al model is a good start...Community Assessment Centered A Developing Conceptual Framework for Online Learning Knowledge Centered Learner Centered Bransford, et al (2002) “How People Learn”What makes a good, higher education, online-learning environment? To answer this you need to know: 2) What are important, specific, best practices for adult learners in higher education?Contact Between Students and Faculty Reciprocity and Cooperation Among Students Active Learning Techniques Communication of High Expectations Respect for Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning Prompt Feedback Time on Task The 7 principles of good practice in undergraduate education encourage: "Certain institutional practices are known to lead to high levels of student engagement. Perhaps the best known set of engagement indicators is the "Seven Principles of Good Practice in Undergraduate Education." (Kuh, 2007 – National Survey of Student Engagement) Chickering and Gamson, (1987)Community Assessment Centered Active Learning Techniques Prompt Feedback Contact Between Students and Faculty Student Reciprocity and Cooperation Time on Task The 7 principles of good practice encourage: Communication of High Expectations Respect for Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning A Developing Conceptual Framework for Online Learning Chickering and Gamson, (1987) Bransford, et al (2002) “How People Learn” Learner Centered Knowledge CenteredWhat makes a good, higher education, online-learning environment? To answer this you need to know: 3) What are important specific, best practices for adult online learners in higher education?Online Learning Community Social Presence Teaching Presence Setting Climate Supporting Discourse Community of Inquiry Model (CoI) Critical Inquiry in a Text-Based Environment Garrison, Anderson, and Archer (2002) Selecting Content Cognitive PresenceCommunity of Inquiry Framework Social Presence The ability of participants to identify with the community (e.g., course of study), communicate purposefully in a trusting environment, and develop inter-personal relationships by way of projecting their individual personalities. Cognitive Presence The extent to which learners are able to construct and confirm meaning through sustained reflection and discourse in a critical community of inquiry. Teaching Presence The design, facilitation and direction of cognitive and social processes for the purpose of realizing personally meaningful and educationally worthwhile learning outcomesELEMENTS CATEGORIES INDICATORS (examples only) Social Presence Open Communication Learning climate/risk-free expression Group Cohesion Group identity/collaboration Personal/Affective Self projection/expressing emotions Cognitive Presence Triggering Event Sense of puzzlement Exploration Information exchange Integration Connecting ideas Resolution Applying new ideas Teaching Presence Design & Organization Setting curriculum & methods Facilitating Discourse Shaping constructive exchange Direct Instruction Clarifying, explaining, demonstrating Elements,Categories & IndicatorsOur Recent Research on CoI in the SUNY Learning Network Shea, P. & Bidjerano, T. (2009). Community of inquiry as a theoretical framework to foster "epistemic engagement" and "cognitive presence" in online education. Computers and Education, 52 (3), 543 – 553. Shea, P., & Bidjerano, T. (2008). Measures of quality in online education: An investigation of the community of inquiry model and the net generation. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 39 (4), 339-361. Shea, P., Li, C. S. & Pickett, A. (2006). A study of “teaching presence” and student sense of learning community in online and classroom environments. The Internet and Higher Education, 9(3), 175-191 Shea, P. (2006). A study of students’ sense of learning community in online environments. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 10(1), 35-44. Shea, P., Li, C., Swan, K., & Pickett, A. (2005). Developing learning community in online asynchronous learning networks. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 9(4), 59-82. Shea, P., Pickett, A., & Pelz, W. (2003). A follow-up investigation of teaching presence in the SUNY Learning Network. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 7(2), 61-80. .Online Learning Community Social Presence Teaching Presence (Assessment Centered) Setting Climate Supporting Discourse Prompt Feedback Contact Between Students and Faculty Reciprocity and Cooperation The 7 principles of good practice encourage: A Conceptual Framework for High Quality, Higher- Education, Online Learning Chickering and Gamson, (1987) Critical Inquiry in a Text-Based Environment Garrison, Anderson, and Archer (2002) Selecting Content Cognitive Presence (Knowledge Centered) Time on Task Active Learning Techniques Communication of High Expectations Respect for Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning Bransford, et al (2002) “How People Learn” (Learner Centered)Teaching Presence “The design, facilitation, and direction of cognitive and social process for the realization of personally meaningful and educationally worthwhile learning outcomes.” (Anderson et al 2001) In a learner-centered environment “teaching presence” is established by both instructors and students.Teaching Presence 1.Instructional Design and Organization 2.Facilitating Discourse 3.Direct InstructionInstructional Design and Organization Setting the Curriculum Designing Methods Establishing Time Parameters Utilizing the Medium Effectively Establishing Netiquette Teaching Presence Instructional Design and Organization Facilitating Discourse Direct InstructionFacilitating Discourse Identifying areas of agreement and disagreement Seeking to reach consensus/understanding Encouraging, acknowledging, and reinforcing student contributions Setting climate for learning Drawing in participants, prompting discussion Assessing the efficacy of the process Teaching Presence Instructional Design and Organization Facilitating Discourse Direct InstructionDirect Instruction Presenting content and questions Focusing the discussion Summarizing the discussion Confirming understanding Diagnosing misperceptions Injecting knowledge from diverse sources Responding to technical concerns More than 300 SUNY faculty engaged in day-long teaching presence workshops designed to revise and improve their online courses Also received follow-up support from an assigned instructional designer to assist with implementing ideas from the workshop in their online courses Faculty Training and Teaching PresenceQuestions that participants addressed included: 1) What is teaching presence, why is it important? 2) How do we measure or identify teaching presence in an online course? 3) What are some instructional design elements that can enhance teaching presence? 4) How can we improve teaching presence through online classroom management? 5) What tools does the SLN Course Management System (CMS) provide to facilitate teaching presence?Teaching Presence Study Faculty who participated in Teaching Presence workshops and received follow-up support. Both faculty and students completed surveys designed to measure teaching presence in their courses 40 questions 366 Faculty responded 101 Faculty respondents had taken the workshop 6063 Students responded in all 954 Students of faculty who had taken the workshop respondedResults Related to Teaching Presence Workshop AttendeesResults Related to the Workshop on Teaching Presence • Teaching Presence Survey (Spring 2008) • Results indicate that students (N= 954) in courses taught by faculty who attended the Teaching Presence workshop (N=101) rated their instructors and courses higher on all of the measure of teaching presence • Student rated courses significantly higher on the following measures of teaching presence relative to students whose instructors had not attended the training:Significantly Higher Ratings for Workshop Attendees • Drawing in participants, prompting discussion (instructor and other students) • Staying on Task (instructor and students) • Focus the discussion on specific issues (instructor and other students) • Confirming understanding (other students)Significantly Higher Ratings for Workshop Attendees • Injecting knowledge from diverse sources (instructor) • Utilizing the medium effectively • Establishing netiquette • Identifying areas of agreement/disagreement • Seeking to reach consensusResults: Workshop on Teaching Presence • Student Satisfaction Students whose instructors had attended the teaching presence workshop also reported significantly higher levels of satisfaction with their courses then their peers whose instructors had not attended. • Reported Learning Students of instructors who had participated in teaching presence workshop were significantly more likely to report that their learning was higher online than for similar classes they had taken in the classroom.Conclusions This and previous studies reveal teaching presence measures correlate highly with measures of student satisfaction and reported learning. Student satisfaction and reported learning are more closely associated with instructor’s teaching-presence behaviors than those of other students. Students look to faculty for lead role. IMPORTANT Faculty who engaged in workshops on Teaching Presence benefited in terms of improved student satisfaction and reported learning. These student rate their instructors as more effective and their online learning as superior to classroom instruction, per recent research on online learning (e.g. Means, et. al., 2009).Other Recent Research o Using factor analysis and SEM o Survey of 5000 online students in 40 colleges o Asked questions about quality of online learning based on CoI framework o Results: items cohere into “constructs” o Constructs can be used to predict variance in student ratings of their learning (CP)Teaching Presence Indicators o When the Instructor (examples): o clearly communicates important course topics o clearly communicates important course goals o provides clear instructions on how to participate in course learning activities o clearly communicates important due dates/time frames for learning activities o identifies areas of learner agreement and disagreement o Fosters resolutionSocial Presence Indicators o It facilitates: o Getting to know other course participants provides a sense of belonging o Ability to form distinct impressions of some course participants o Perception that online or web-based communication is good medium for social interaction o Comfort conversing through the online medium o Comfort participating in the course discussionsCognitive Presence Indicators o Online discussions were valuable in helping me appreciate different perspectives o Combining new information helps me answer questions raised in course activities o Learning activities help me construct explanations/solutions o Reflection on course content and discussions help me understand fundamental concepts o I can describe ways to test and apply the knowledge created in this course o I can develop solutions to course problems that can be applied in practice o I can apply the knowledge created in the course to work or other non-class related activitiesTeachingPresenceq12.38q11.28q10.24q9.27q8.18q7.23q6.19q5.24q4.53q3.43q2.40q1.37.891.851.871.851.901.881.901.871.6911.781.801q1346.741CognitivePresenceq34.44q33.39q32.40q31.27q30.27q29.29q28.49q27.44q26.47q25.34q24..36q23.48.751.781.781.851.861.841.721.751.721.811.801.721SocialPresenceq22.40q21.38q20.41q19.18q18.29q17.27q16.62q15.67q14.65.77.781.771.911.861.851.621.581.591.52(.49)**GenderAgeAcademicLevel.06(.04)*.02(.08)**.00(.01).06*.00.22**.75.52(.52)**.49(.47)**Community of Inquiry Model Significant Learning Instructional Role Collaborative Online Environment Accounts for 70% of varianceWhat seems to be missing? Inputs • Online Instructor role (TP) • Online Learning Environment (SP) • X? Outcomes • Significant Learning (CP) • Hmmm….Learner Presence Describes those behaviors that are specific to the learner and which online instructors do not and cannot demonstrate (i.e. not traditional TP) E.g. student-student collaborations in which (solely) learners, a) negotiate logistics, b) interpret instructor provided instructions, c) plan elements of L2L collaborative projects Also describes strategic self-regulatory learning behaviors in which successful online students engageWhat is LP? Learning to learn “online” Online learner self regulation Meta-cognition - reflection Self efficacy online Motivation for online learning Intentional control of effort online Intentional control of affect online Strategic learning in online environments Why?: It can be “taught” and “learned”Online Learner Presence o Strategic online students engage in monitoring and self-regulation of online behavior including effective control of temporal, spatial, technological, and human resources Includes regulation of learner time management, study environment (e.g., the place in which they participate in the online course), technologies used, and online interactions with peers and faculty members to seek help o Learner self-regulation of motivation and affect involves identifying and addressing motivational beliefs such as self-efficacy and goal orientation, to adapt to the demands of an online course. Successful online students monitor and regulate motivation, emotions and affect (such as anxiety) in ways that impact their learning. o Strategic learner self-regulation of cognition involves monitoring and intentional control of various cognitive strategies for learning, conscious and intentional use of self regulated strategies (e.g. self monitoring, self explanation, elaboration, rehearsal) that result in better learning and performance (adapted from Garcia & Pintrich, 1994; Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeache, 1993).Evidence for online “LP” Nine studies (Bixler 2008; Chang 2007; Chung, Chung and Severance 1999; Cook et al. 2005; Crippen and Earl 2007; Nelson 2007; Saito and Miwa 2007; Shen, Lee and Tsai 2007; Wang et al. 2006) examined the degree to which promoting aspects of learner self reflection in a Web-based environment improved learning outcomes. These studies found that a tool or feature prompting online students to reflect on their learning was effective in improving outcomes. Means, et. al. (2009) More recent research indicates online learner self regulation can be measured, profiled, and is a predictor of GPA (Barnard-Brak, Lan, Patton, 2010)Other evidence for “LP” Overall, the available research evidence suggests that promoting self-reflection, self-regulation and self- monitoring leads to more positive online learning outcomes. Features such as prompts for reflection, self-explanation and self-monitoring strategies have shown promise for improving online learning outcomes. Means, et. al. (2009)Other evidence for LP The clearest recommendation for practice (…)is to incorporate mechanisms that promote student reflection on their level of understanding. A dozen studies have investigated what effects manipulations that trigger learner reflection and self- monitoring of understanding have on individual students’ online learning outcomes. Ten studies found that experimental manipulations offered advantages over online learning that did not provide the trigger for reflection. (Means, et. al., 2009)Our current research Survey of over 3000 online learners Study of elements of self regulated learning Measures of self-efficacy and effort regulation as predictors of CoI constructs in blended and fully online courses Results: Self efficacy “predicts” CoI measures Support for self-efficacy is even more important in fully online courses than in blended/hybrid courses.New Hypothesized CoI Relational ModelWhat can you do? Think about a course you teach. How might you promote better learner presence (LP) in your own online course(s)? Think of the three dimensions – learner reflection and subsequent regulation of: • Cognition • Behaviors • Affect/MotivationCurrent research Can we use learning journals to promote online learner reflection and self regulation? Provide prompts to reflect on behavior, motivation, and cognition? Prompts to promote better • time management, tracking learning time (behavior) • reflections on what is confusing (cognition) • what do I know, what do I need to know (cognition) • how does this apply beyond my course, to my life? (motivation) • am I engaged in my course? Why? Why not? (motivation)Questions Thank you! Peter Shea pshea@uamail.albany.edu 518-442-4009Teaching Presence: A New View Total Instructor TP In Discussion‐4‐20246810121416M1M2M3M4M5Instructor AInstructor BLinear (InstructorA)Linear (InstructorB)Total Instructor TP Coursewide01020304050607080M1M2M3M4M5Instructor AInstructor BLinear (InstructorA)Linear (InstructorB

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