The detrimental effects of childhood physical, sexual, or emotional abuse on psychological functioning in adulthood have been reported in numerous studies. Negative outcomes include dissociation, depression, and difficulties in interpersonal relationships. (Gauthier, Stollak, Messe, & Aronoff, 1996; Sanders & Becker-Lausen, 1995). Stein, Leslie, and Nyamathi (2002), in a study of women homeless in shelters, found that childhood abuse directly predicted later depression and low self-esteem. Not surprisingly, post-traumatic stress Copyright University of Houston, 2006 6 disorder (PTSD) has been described as a highly co-morbid disorder, and is likely to co-occur with depression and anxiety disorders, alcohol abuse, smoking, and drug abuse (Perkonigg & Wittchen, 1999)
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