Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Changing, priming, and acting on values: Effects via motivational relations in a circular model

By Gregory R. Maio, Ali Pakizeh, Wing-Yee Cheung and Kerry J. Rees


Circular models of values and goals suggest that some motivational aims are consistent with each other, some oppose each other, and others are orthogonal to each other. The present experiments tested this idea explicitly by examining how value confrontation and priming methods influence values and value-consistent behaviors throughout the entire value system. Experiment 1 revealed that change in 1 set of social values causes motivationally compatible values to increase in importance, whereas motivationally incompatible values decrease in importance and orthogonal values remain the same. Experiment 2 found that priming security values reduced the better-than-average effect, but priming stimulation values increased it. Similarly, Experiments 3 and 4 found that priming security values increased cleanliness and decreased curiosity behaviors, whereas priming self-direction values decreased cleanliness and increased curiosity behaviors. Experiment 5 found that priming achievement values increased success at puzzle completion and decreased helpfulness to an experimenter, whereas priming with benevolence values decreased success and increased helpfulness. These results highlight the importance of circular models describing motivational interconnections between values and personal goals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)<br/

Topics: BF, HM
Year: 2009
OAI identifier:
Provided by: e-Prints Soton

Suggested articles


  1. (2006). 17). Money is material. doi
  2. (2006). 17). The psychological consequences of money. doi
  3. (2002). A theory of goal systems. doi
  4. (1981). Acceptance, yielding, and impact: Cognitive processes in persuasion. In
  5. (2001). Addressing discrepancies between values and behavior: The motivating effect of reasons. doi
  6. (2001). An attribution-value model of prejudice: Anti-fat attitudes in six nations. doi
  7. (1996). Automatic activation of impression formation and memorization goals: Nonconscious goal priming reproduces effects of explicit task instructions. doi
  8. (2001). Automatic social behaviour: How does priming of egoism and altruism influence helping behaviour? Zeitschrift Fur Experimentelle Psychologie,
  9. (2007). Basic human values: Inter-value structure in memory. doi
  10. (2000). Breaking the prejudice habit: Progress and obstacles.
  11. (2007). Considering reasons for a value influences behaviour that expresses related values: An extension of the valueas-truisms hypothesis. doi
  12. (1996). Culture, ideology, and anti-fat attitudes. doi
  13. (2002). Early family experiences and adult values: A 26-year, prospective longitudinal study. doi
  14. (2003). Effects of introspection about reasons for values: Extending research on values-astruisms. doi
  15. (1992). Effects of work values on job choice decisions. doi
  16. (2000). Emotion and group cohesion in productive exchange. doi
  17. (1991). Enhancement and denial in socially desirable responding. doi
  18. (2005). Flight into security: A new approach and measure of the authoritarian personality. doi
  19. (1996). Further examining the American dream: Differential correlates of intrinsic and extrinsic goals. doi
  20. (1985). Global self-evaluation as determined by the desirability and controllability of trait adjectives. doi
  21. (1998). Help, I need somebody: Automatic action and inaction. doi
  22. (2008). How goal instrumentality shapes relationship evaluations. doi
  23. (1997). Individual and collective processes in the construction of the self: Self-enhancement in the United States and self-criticism in Japan. doi
  24. (1994). Inducing change in values, attitudes, and behaviors: Belief system theory and the method of value self-confrontation. doi
  25. (1988). Justifying attitudes by appealing to values: A functional perspective. doi
  26. (2006). Knowing your place: Self-perceptions of status in face-to-face groups. doi
  27. (2004). Liking is for doing: The effect of goal pursuit on automatically activated attitudes. doi
  28. (1975). Long-term value change initiated by computer feedback. doi
  29. (1999). Off-road religion? A narrative approach to fundamentalist and occult orientations of adolescents. doi
  30. (1995). Personal contact, individuation, and the betterthan-average effect. doi
  31. (1995). Predicting adolescent drinking from alcohol expectancy values: A comparison of additive, interactive, and nonlinear models. doi
  32. (1990). Prejudice or ambivalence? Attitudes toward persons with disabilities. doi
  33. (2001). Priming in-group favoritism: The impact of normative scripts in the minimal group paradigm. doi
  34. (1988). Racial ambivalence and American value conflict: Correlational and priming studies of dual cognitive structures. doi
  35. (1996). Rankings, ratings, and the measurement of values: Evidence for the superior validity of ratings. doi
  36. (2007). Revision received
  37. (2005). Sex differences in value priorities: Cross-cultural and multimethod studies. doi
  38. (1989). Social comparison activity under threat: Downward evaluation and upward contacts. doi
  39. (2007). Social psychological factors in lifestyle change and their relevance to policy. doi
  40. (2007). Social values as self-guides: Value centrality influences regulatory focus and experienced emotion. Manuscript submitted for publication. doi
  41. (2002). Socially desirable responding: The evolution of a construct. In doi
  42. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. doi
  43. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. doi
  44. (2001). The automated will: Nonconscious activation and pursuit of behavioral goals. doi
  45. (1986). The aversive form of racism. In doi
  46. (2002). The Big Five personality factors and personal values. doi
  47. (1987). The expression of attitude. doi
  48. (2000). The mind in the middle: A practical guide to priming and automaticity research. In
  49. (1973). The nature of human values. doi
  50. (2000). The psychology of sexual prejudice. doi
  51. (2001). The semanticprocedural interface model of the self: The role of self-knowledge for context-dependent versus context-independent modes of thinking. doi
  52. (2005). The structure of goal contents across 15 cultures. doi
  53. (2003). The vulnerability of values to attack: Inoculation of values and value-relevant attitudes. doi
  54. (2003). Thinking of you: Nonconscious pursuit of interpersonal goals associated with relationship partners. doi
  55. (2008). Uncertainty orientation and affective experiences: Individual differences within and across cultures. doi
  56. (2005). Understanding and addressing contemporary racism: From aversive racism to the common ingroup identity model. doi
  57. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. doi
  58. (1999). Unskilled and unaware of it: How difficulties in recognizing one’s own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessments. doi
  59. (1996). Value priorities and behavior: Applying the theory of integrated value systems
  60. (1995). Value priorities and readiness for out-group social contact. doi
  61. (1999). Value priorities, social value orientations and cooperation in social dilemmas. doi
  62. (1988). Value self-confrontation as a 714 MAIO, PAKIZEH, CHEUNG, AND REESmethod to aid in weight loss.
  63. (2003). Values and behavior: Strength and structure of relations. doi
  64. (1999). Values and their relationship to HIV/AIDS risk behavior among late-adolescent and young adult college students.
  65. (1998). Values as truisms: Evidence and implications. doi
  66. (2006). What have we been priming all these years? On the development, mechanisms, and ecology of nonconscious social behavior. doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.