Compartmentalization of signal transduction enzymes is an important mechanism of cellular signaling specificity. This occurs through the interaction of enzymes with scaffolding or anchoring proteins. To date, one of the best-studied examples of kinase anchoring is the targeting of protein kinase A to cellular locations through its association with A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). AKAPs mediate a high-affinity interaction with the type II regulatory subunit of protein kinase A for the purpose of localizing the kinase to pools of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and within proximity of preferred substrates. Furthermore, AKAPs can organize entire signaling complexes made up of kinases, phosphatases, signaling enzymes, and additional regulatory proteins. Index Entries: cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA); A-kinase anchoring protein; kinase; phosphatase; cAMP
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