Abstract. This work reviews some aspects of the ionospheric F-layer in the vicinity of the geomagnetic equator. Starting with a historical introduction, brief summaries are given of the physics that makes the equatorial ionosphere so interesting, concentrating on the large-scale structure rather than the smaller-scale instability phenomena. Several individual topics are then discussed, including eclipse e€ects, the asymmetries of the `equatorial trough', variations with longitude, the semiannual variation, the e€ects of the global thermospheric circulation, and ®nally the equatorial neutral thermosphere, including `superrotation ' and possible topographic in¯uences. Key word: Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere)
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