Abstract. Passive tracers are used in an o€-line version of the United Kingdom Fine Resolution Antarctic Model (FRAM) to highlight features of the circulation and provide information on the inter-ocean exchange of water masses. The use of passive tracers allows a picture to be built up of the deep circulation which is not readily apparent from examination of the velocity or density ®elds. Comparison of observations with FRAM results gives good agreement for many features of the Southern Ocean circulation. Tracer distributions are consistent with the concept of a global ``conveyor belt' ' with a return path via the Agulhas retro¯ection region for the replenishment of North Atlantic Deep Water. Key words. Oceanography: general (numerical modeling; water masses) á Oceanography: physical (general circulation).
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