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demographic factors such a bottleneck associated with human migration out of Africa 50,000 to 100,000 years ago. Previous studies have shown that Microcephalin is a specific regulator of brain size (13, 14) and that this gene has evolved under strong positive selection in the primate lineage leading to Homo sapiens (7, 8). Here, we present compelling evidence that Microcephalin has continued its trend of adaptive evolution beyond the emergence of anatomically modern humans. The specific function of Microcephalin in brain development makes it likely that selection has operated on the brain. Yet, it remains formally possible tha

Year: 2013
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