During the summer and autumn of 1997, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) along the British Columbia coast and in the Gulf of Alaska were the warmest on record, and the return migration of sockeye salmon to the Fraser River was unusually protracted (McKinnell, 1997). Some sockeye salmon had developed secondary sexual characteristics in the sea. From northern California (Smith River) to northern Vancouver Island, sockeye salmon were observed in unusual abundance in rivers and streams where they are not normally seen. Two hypotheses were developed to explain these observations: (1) there had been good survival of small local sea- and river-type populations that had largely gone unnoticed by biologists, and/or (2) an unusually high number of th
To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.