This paper presents a cognitive framework for describing behaviors involved in program composition, comprehension, debugging, modification, and the acquisition of new programming concepts, skills, and knowledge. An information processing model is presented which includes a long-term store of semantic and syntactic knowledge, and a working memory in which problem solutions are constructed. New experimental evidence is presented to support the model of syntactic/semantic interaction. KEY WORDS: Programming; programming languages; cognitive models; program composition; program comprehension; debugging; modification
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