Recent molecular phylogenetic studies on Lophocoleaceae have recovered some well-supported monophyletic lineages within Chiloscyphus s. lat. that merit recognition at the generic level. As a consequence, Chiloscyphus is herein circumscribed to include only Chiloscyphus subgen. Chiloscyphus, Chiloscyphus subgen. Connati is elevated to generic rank to which the new name Cryptolophocolea is applied, and Lophocolea, Pachyglossa and Clasmatocolea are recognized as distinct genera. Tetracymbaliella is transferred to the Brevianthaceae, and a synopsis of the genera currently recognized in Lophocoleaceae is provided. Current knowledge of the family Lophocoleaceae During the last 50 years Lophocoleaceae Vanden Berghen (1956: 208) have (mostly as Geocalycaceae Klinggräff 1858: 34) mainly been circumscribed in a very broad sense. However, Hentschel et al. (2006a) showed that Lophocoleaceae is well separated from Geocalycaceae and Harpanthaceae Arnell (1928: 147), but remains a large and diverse family. Lophocoleaceae is a family with a turbulent history and many taxa have been moved back and forth among genera. Engel & Schuster (1985) introduced a very broad concept of the genus Chiloscyphus including in it all species generally referred to Chiloscyphus and Lophocolea at that time. This concept was not adopte
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