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Cycling of iron, manganese, and phosphate in a meromictic lake Dug Hongve



Lake Nordbytjernet (Southeast Norway) had up to 40 mg liter- ’ dissolved iron and 67 mg liter- ’ dissolved manganese in a stagnant layer. The ratio between iron and manganese loading was around 3: 1, while the inventory of manganese was six times higher than for iron. High concentrations of dissolved iron occurred solely under strictly anoxic conditions, while dissolved manganese was unaffected by intrusion of oxygen during the autumnal partial circulation. Mixed potentials caused by oxidation of ferrous iron and reduction of manganic oxide or 0, controlled the redox potential values, while dissolved manganese appeared to have no influence. The following main processes controlled the sedimentation rates: fluvial supply of suspended material, precipitation of ferric hydroxide and manganese oxide from the water column, and plankton production, Sorption to ferric hydroxide in the oxic zone and reductive desorption in the anoxic zone controlled the deep water stratification of phosphorus, dissolved organic carbon, and some major cations. No similar effects were seen for manganese sedimentation. The iron sedimentation rate was enhanced in the anoxic zone due to redox coupling of iron oxidation and manganese reduction. Phosphorus was depleted in the anoxic zone during periods of substantial ferric hydroxide sedimentation. Sedimentation of manganese under anoxic conditions seemed to be governed by precipitation of carbonate and phosphate. Residence times in the lake were 0.2 yr for iron and phosphorous vs. 3.3 yr for manganese and 1.4 yr for water

Year: 2013
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