How do youth development professionals and club advisors develop “learning by doing” opportunities for youth? The guiding principle of designing educational opportunities for youth should reflect both the philosophy of “learning by doing ” and also focus on content based on proven facts (research-based). “Learning by doing ” is active, hands-on, and engaging for 4-H members. The goal of this teaching approach is for learners to construct mental models that allow for “higher order ” performance such as applied problem-solving and the transferring of information and skills (Churchill, 2003). Essentially, developing lesson plans should focus more on “making, producing, practicing, and observing ” exercises rather than teacher-directe
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