Microelectronics integration density is limited by the reliability of the manufactured product at a desired circuit density. Design rules, operating voltage and maximum switching speeds are chosen to insure functional operation over the intended lifetime of the product. In order to determine the ultimate performance for a given set of design constraints, the reliability must be modeled for its specific operating condition. Thus, Reliability modeling for the purpose of lifetime prediction is the ultimate task of a failure physics evaluation. Unfortunately, all the industrial approaches to reliability evaluation fall short of predicting failure rates or wear-out lifetime of semiconductor products. This is attributed mainly to two reasons; the lack of a unified approach for predicting device failure rates and the fact that all commercial reliability evaluation methods rely on the acceleration of one, dominant, failure mechanism. Over the past several decades, our knowledge about the root cause and physical behavior of the critical failure mechanisms in microelectroni
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