Figure 1. (Left and center) Our prototype setup in a surgical room for image-guided surgery where an intraoperational fluoroscope is used for X-ray imaging. (Right) Our system exposes the spatial and temporal relationships of the acquired X-rays in an interactive 3D visualization. Image-guided surgery (IGS) often depends on X-ray imaging, since pre-operative MRI, CT and PET scans do not provide an up-to-date internal patient view during the operation. X-rays introduce hazardous radiation, but long exposures for monitoring are often necessary to increase accuracy in critical situations. Surgeons often also take multiple X-rays from different angles, as X-rays only provide a distorted 2D perspective from the current viewpoint. We introduce a prototype IGS system that augments 2D X-ray images with spatiotemporal information using a motion tracking system, such that the use of X-rays can be reduced. In addition, an interactive visualization allows exploring 2D X-rays in timeline views and 3D clouds where they are arranged according to the viewpoint at the time of acquisition. The system could be deployed and used without timeconsuming calibration, and has the potential to improve surgeons ’ spatial awareness, while increasing efficiency and patient safety. 1
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