Some seemingly ordinary observations about the epistemic modals might and must have recently led some to an extraordinary measure. The extraordinary measure is to insist that sentences like (1) Billy might be at the party only get assigned truth-values relative to contexts of utterance, indices of evaluation, and—the new wrinkle—points of assessment. We dub such semantic analyses CIA theories. 1 Our goal here is to catalogue some central problems that any CIA theory must solve. We begin by briefly sketching a motivation for CIA theories and a generic formulation of them. Then we lay down our gauntlet, showing where and why there are troubling CIA leaks. We end by outlining an alternative semantics that we develop elsewhere. For comments, we would like to thank Josh Dever, John Hawthorne, Angelika Kratzer, two anonymous Philosophical Review referees, and audiences at the University o
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