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Numerical Results From a Nine-Level General Circulation Model of €he Atmosphere

By Joseph Smagorinsky, Syukuro Manabe and J. Leith Holloway


The “primitive equations of motion ” are adopted for this study. The nine levels of the model are distributed so as to resolve surface boundary layer fluxes as well as radiative transfer by ozone, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. The lower boundary is a kinematically uniform land surface without any heat capacity. The stabilizing effect of moist convection is implicitly incorporated into the model by requiring an adjustment of the lapse rate whenever it exceeds the moist adiabatic value. The numerical integrations are performed for the mean annual conditions over a hemisphere starting with an isothermal atmosphere at rest. The spatial distribution of gaseous absorbers is assumed to have the annual mean value of the actual atmosphere and to be constant with time. A quasi-equilibrium is attained about which a cyclic energy variation occurs with an irregular period of about 2 weeks. The dominant wave number of the meridional component of the wind is 5 to 6 in the troposphere but is reduced to about 3 in the stratosphere. The gross structure and behavior of the tropopause and stratosphere below 30 km. agree reasonably well with observation. The meridional circulation obtained from the computation has a 3-cell structure in the troposphere and tends toward a 2-cell structure with increasing altitude in the stratosphere. Although the level of the jet stream as well as that of the maximum northward transport of momentum coincides with observation, the intensity of the jet stream turns out to be much stronger than the observed annual mean

Year: 1965
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