In this paper, we present data from 31 semi-structured interviews with anti-phishing experts from academia, law enforcement, and industry. Our analysis led to eight key findings and 18 recommendations to improve phishing countermeasures. Our findings describe the evolving phishing threat, stakeholder incentives to devote resources to anti-phishing efforts, what stakeholders should do to most effectively address the problem, and the role of education and law enforcement. Index Terms-anti-phishing, expert interview, electronic crime. I
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