Distributed hash table (DHT) networks based on consistent hashing functions have an inherent load balancing problem. The problem becomes more severe due to the heterogeneity of network nodes and the non-uniform and timevarying file popularity. Existing DHT load balancing algorithms are mainly focused on the issues caused by node heterogeneity. To deal with skewed lookups, this paper presents an elastic routing table (ERT) mechanism for query load balancing, based on the observation that high degree nodes tend to experience more traffic load. The mechanism allows each node to have a routing table of variable size corresponding to its capacity. The indegree and outdegree of the routing table can also be adjusted dynamically in response to the change of file popularity and network churn. Theoretical analysis proves the routing table degree is bounded. The ERT mechanism facilitates locality-aware randomized query forwarding to further improve lookup efficiency. By relating query forwarding to a supermarket customer service model, we prove a 2-way randomized query forwarding policy leads to an exponential improvement in query processing time over random walking. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the ERT mechanism and its related query forwarding policy for congestion and query load balancing. In comparison with the existing “virtual-server”-based load balancing algorithm and other routing table control approaches, the ERT-based congestion control protocol yields significant improvements in query lookup efficiency.
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