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by nonverbal accommodations to interlocutors, such as posture mirroring (LaFrance, 1982), interactional synchrony (Condon, 1976), and entrainment of postural activity (Shockley, Santana, & Fowler, 2003). These short-term changes in vocal and nonvocal behavior may reflect interlocutors ’ efforts to coordinate their activities in the service of conjoint goals (e.g., Clark, 1996), a speculation supported by findings of divergence in vocal behavior under conditions in which interlocutors may experience hostility toward one another (e.g., Bourhis & Giles, 1977; Labov, 1963). Somewhat (Sancier & Fowler, 1997) and considerably (Flege, 1987) longer term reflections of learning well past any critical period also occur. In an exploration of the speech of a single bilingual speaker of Brazilian Portuguese (her first language or L1) and English (L2, learned beginning at age 15 years), Sancier and Fowler found changes in the voice onset times (VOTs) of the speaker’s voiceless stops in both languages as a function of the ambient language. Portuguese has uniformly unaspirated (short-lag) voiceless stops; in stressed, syllable-initial position, English has aspirated (long-lag) voiceless stops. When the bilingual speaker’s speech was recorded after she had spent several months in Connecticut speaking English almost exclusively, her VOTs in both Portuguese and English were significantly longer than in recordings collected immediately after a 2-month stay in Brazil. Of interest in this study was the finding that parallel changes took place in th

Year: 2013
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