(2008) asserted that models of fast and frugal heuristics have been vaguely specified. We strongly reject this claim. The computational models of search, stopping, and decision rules allow for precise predictions. In fact, many researchers have tested under which conditions people follow which heuristic (e.g., Bröder & Schiffer, 2003), compared the predictions of heuristics to those of rational models (e.g., Bergert & Nosofsky, 2007), and studied the ecological rationality of different heuristics through statistical analysis and computer simulation (e.g., Hogarth & Karelaia, 2007). Our point that ecological validity (the relationship between cue and criterion in the environment) is not the same as cue validity (the perceived relationship between cue and criterion in a person’s mind) is not a “new found clarity; ” it was made in Gigerenzer, Hoffrage, and Kleinbölting’s (1991) article. It has nothing to d
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