AMPCo Direct database in order to obtain a complete set of demographic variables—including including, age, sex, specialty and subspecialty, primary practice location—on all doctors in the study sample. The matching was probabilistic. It was done with FRIL linkage software (version 2.1.4, Emory University) and was based on doctor name, specialty, and practice postcode. The match rate across Commissions averaged 85 % (range, 75 % to 87%). For doctors named in complaints who could not be matched to the AMPCo Direct list, we sought to retrieve any missing doctor-level information from publicly-accessible sources, including the national register of medical practitioners(1), newspaper obituaries and other media reports, and the newsletters of colleges, societies and other professional associations. After both matching to the AMPCo Direct database and the manual addition of missing variables, 97 % of doctors in the sample frame entered the study dataset. 1 DISTRIBUTIONAL/CLUSTERING ANALYSIS Statistics on complaint clustering among doctors were calculated as follows: (a) Number of complaints 1 complaint x 2 or more complaints n or more complaints (b) Number of doctors with complaint count specified in column (a) y z (c) % of all complainedagainst doctors with complaint count (strictly) exceeding that specified in column (a
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