What is the effectiveness of clinical service interventions in patients previously hospitalized for heart failure (HF)? Review scope Included studies had ≥ 6 months of follow-up and compared clinical service interventions with usual care in patients ≥ 18 years of age who had ≥ 1 previous secondary care admission with HF. Clinical service interventions had to be directed at patients with HF and included case management (intense postdischarge monitoring, usually by specialist nurses), outpatient HF clinic follow-up by specialists, and multidisciplinary interventions with holistic approaches. Exclusion criteria included HF due to congenital or valvular heart disease; primarily educational or unstructured telephone or videoconferencing interventions; or interventions focused only on exercise, telemedicine, or cardiac rehabilitation. Outcomes included mortality and secondary care readmissions
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