This study aimed to investigate pressure changes of renal pelvis and histological change of kidneys in a surgically induced sterile rabbit vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) model. Five rabbits served as a control group, 7 as the sham-operated group, and 8 served as the VUR group. Three weeks later, urodynamic studies were performed, and histological examinations evaluated degree of inflammation, fibrosis, and tubular damage in the kidneys. At a low infusion rate, renal pelvic pressure in the VUR group was stable until late filling phase and then increased slightly. At a high infusion rate, the renal pelvic pressures of the shamoperated and control groups were stable until late filling phase and then increased slightly, whereas the renal pelvic pressure in the VUR group steadily increased from mid filling phase. Focal thinning of the tubular epithelium and interstitial widening were observed in certain cortical areas of refluxing kidneys, without inflammatory cell infiltration. Obvious changes in the mean diameters of distal tubules and extracellular matrix volume fractions were observed in two highly refluxing kidneys. High pressure reflux with bladder instabilit
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