Copyright © 2011 María Sol Brassesco et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Contemporary anticancer therapies have largely improved the outcome for children with cancer, especially for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). Actually, between 78 % and 85 % of patients achieve complete remission and are alive after 5 years of therapy completion. However, as cure rates increase, new concerns about the late effects of genotoxic treatment emerge, being the risk of developing secondary neoplasias, the most serious life-threatening rising problem. In the present paper, we describe and review the cytogenetic findings in peripheral lymphocytes from ALL survivors, and discuss aspects associated to the occurrence of increased chromosome rearrangements in this growing cohort. 1
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