10.22439/dansoc.v20i4.3137

Hyper-ritualer og følelser for det sociale. Durkheims teori om samfundets møde med sig selv

Abstract

Emile Durkheim er kendt som en sociolog, der understregede vigtigheden af at studere samfundet som en funktionelt integreret helhed af objektiverbare sociale fakta. I artiklen argumenteres der for at følelser i al deres uhåndgribelighed alligevel fascinerede ham som en central forskningsgenstand. Durkheims teori om følelser har to hovedtemaer. Han har dels en teori om ”opbrusende øjeblikke”, det er situationer præget af sociale oplevelser, der skaber sporsættende og stærkt følelsesmættede erfaringer. Oplevelser, der er tæt knyttet til det sociale, men samtidig transcenderer dette felt og gør det meningsfuldt. Han har endvidere en teori om, hvorledes sociale fællesskaber gennem ritualer, symboler og fortællinger fastholder og genskaber de oprindelige følelser knyttet til de ekstraordinære situationer. Artiklen udfolder Durkheims behandling af disse to teoretiske spor og drager bl.a. den konklusion, at menneskers baggrund for at handle intentionelt formes gennem markante sociale situationer, præget af en høj følelsesmæssig intensitet. En anden konklusion er at sådanne ekstraordinære situationer så at sige insisterer på at blive erindret. Det sker gennem følelsesmæssige bånd, der knytter erindret fortid sammen med erindrende nutid. De ”opbrusende øjeblikke” bliver dermed styrende for de måder hvorpå mennesker, både individuelt og kollektivt, konstruerer deres biografier og gør deres aktuelle handlinger meningsfulde. ENGELSK ABSTRACT: Erik Laursen: Hyper-rituals and Feelings for The Social. Durkheim’s Theory of Society’s Meeting with Itself Emile Durkheim is known for emphasizing the importance of studying society as a functional, integrated whole of social data that may be objectified. This article argues that feelings in all of their intangibility nevertheless fascinated him. Durkheim’s theory on feelings possesses two main themes. On one hand he has a theory on “effervescent moments”, which are situations characterized by social experiences creating path making and strongly emotional experiences. Experiences closely connected to social life but at the same time transcending this field and giving it meaning. In addition, he has a theory about how social communities maintain and regenerate the original fee-lings attached to extraordinary situations through rituals, symbols and sto-ries. This article presents Durkheim’s discussion of these two theoretic paths and concludes that people’s background for acting intentionally is formed by significant social situations characterized by intense feeling. It also concludes that such extraordinary situations insist on being remembered. This happens through emotional ties binding recalled past to recalling present. The “effervescent moments” become therefore the ways in which people, individually as well as collectively, construct their biographies and give their current acts meaning. Key words: Hyper-rituals, emotions, soft social facts, religion, effervescence moments

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oai:ojs.pkp.sfu.ca:article/3137Last time updated on 10/17/2019

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