Memory integrity verification is a useful primitive when implementing secure processors that are resistant to attacks on hardware components. This paper proposes new hardware schemes to verify the integrity of untrusted external memory using a very small amount of trusted on-chip storage. Our schemes maintain incremental multiset hashes of all memory reads and writes at run-time, and can verify a sequence of memory operations at a later time. We study the advantages and disadvantages of the two new schemes and two existing integrity checking schemes, MACs and hash trees, when implemented in hardware in a microprocessor. Simulations show that the new schemes outperform existing schemes of equivalent functionality when integrity verification is infrequent.
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