Abstract—Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) is receiving increased interest as a valuable tool for monitoring the physiological functions in the animal brain based on the ability of manganese ions to mimic calcium ions entering to excitable cells. Here the possibility that in vivo MEMRI can detect the entry of manganese ions (Mn 2 �)inthe brain of rats behaving without intended stimulation is tested. This hypothesis was a result of the unexpected observation that Mn 2 �-dependent signal enhancement was dramatically suppressed in ketamine-anesthetized rats compared with other anesthetics, such as urethane, pentobarbital and isoflurane. The effects of noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists, ketamine and MK-801, on MEMRI for MnCl 2 injected rats were examined. Treatment with MK-801 suppressed the signal enhancement more effectivel
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