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Interaction among GSK-3, GBP, Axin, and APC in Xenopus Axis Specification

By Gist H. Farr Iii, Denise M. Ferkey, Cynthia Yost, Sarah B. Pierce, Carole Weaver and David Kimelman


Abstract. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a constitutively active kinase that negatively regulates its substrates, one of which is �-catenin, a downstream effector of the Wnt signaling pathway that is required for dorsal–ventral axis specification in the Xenopus embryo. GSK-3 activity is regulated through the opposing activities of multiple proteins. Axin, GSK-3, and �-catenin form a complex that promotes the GSK-3–mediated phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of �-catenin. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) joins the complex and downregulates �-catenin in mammalian cells, but its role in Xenopus is less clear. In contrast

Year: 2013
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