well as the assistance of students who participated in data collection and analysis for this research. 2 The Effect of Stating Expectations on Customer Satisfaction and Shopping Experience Customers ’ expectations are key determinants of their consumption experiences, satisfaction, and loyalty. Therefore, knowing in advance what customers expect is critical for the success of marketing strategies. We examine alternative predictions regarding the impact of stating expectations before purchase on subsequent perceptions of the shopping experience and the firm. In particular, the present research suggests that asking customers to articulate their expectations can backfire and lead to more negative evaluations of the shopping and consumption experience. A series of field experiments indicate that, compared to a control group, stating pre-purchase expectations leads customers to focus on negative aspects of the shopping experience and perceive the same performance more negatively. The observed systematic negative bias produced by stating expectations is inconsistent with confirmation bias as well as assimilation, contrast, and positivity effects. The last study was designed to examine the seemingly inconsistent findings of this research and prior findings showing a positive effect of measurin
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