week after the terrorist attacks against the World Trade Center in New York on September 11, 2001. The aim was to investigate whether social categorization affected emotional reactions, behavioral tendencies, and actual behaviors. Results showed that focusing participants ’ attention on an identity that included American victims into a common ingroup led them to report more fear and stronger fear-related behavioral tendencies and to engage more often in fear-related behaviors than when victims were categorized as outgroup members. Results are discussed with respect to appraisal theories of emotion and E. R. Smith’s model of group-based emotions. Keywords: self-categorization; social identity; emotions On Tuesday morning, September 11, 2001, terrorists attacked America in a series of despicable acts of war.... Freedom and democracy are under attack.... This enemy attacked not just our people but all freedom-loving people everywhere in the world.... The freedom-loving nations of the world stand by our side. This will be a monumental struggle of good versus evil. George W. Bush, president of the United States of America, pronounced these words during the press conference
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