The possible role of gonadal steroids in regulating sleep and circadian rhythms in humans has received relatively little attention despite the importance of the topic to several clinical syndromes. Pharmacologically induced hypogonadism, with and without gonadal steroid replacement, provides an opportunity to examine these questions within a controlled experimental design. We used leuprolide acetate, with and without testosterone replacement, to study the role of testosterone in the regulation of sleep and of melatonin, PRL, and MANY STUDIES have examined the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in the regulation of sleep, activity, and circadian rhythms in animals (1–3). In humans, it is unclear whether regulatory links exist between the HPG axis and the retino-hypothalamic-pineal system controlling melatonin secretion; our first goal in thi
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