ion design and navigational structure. This decoupling permits modular system design, and lets designers build dynamic multimedia systems that can determine appropriate presentations in a given situation on the fly. To this end, we developed Procedural Markup Language (PML), which uses cognitive media roles to flexibly specify the knowledge structures, the underlying physical media, and the relationships between them. The PML description can then be translated into different presentations depending on the context, goals, and user expertise. Here we describe PML, focusing specifically on procedural task domains, with examples from home plumbing procedures. The highlights of our formalism are: z Domain information is encoded in knowledge nodes that are connected to each other through knowledge links. z Information within a particular knowledge node is represented using physical media clusters that contain media elements such as text, graphics, animations
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