Apoptosis (programmed cell death) is a cellular self-destruction mechanism that is essential for a variety of biological events, such as developmental sculpturing, tissue homeostasis, and the removal of unwanted cells. Mitochondria play a crucial role in regulating cell death. Ca 2+ has long been recognized as a participant in apoptotic pathways. Mitochondria are known to modulate and synchronize Ca 2+ signaling. Massive accumulation of Ca 2+ in the mitochondria leads to apoptosis. The Ca 2+ dynamics of ER and mitochondria appear to be modulated by the Bcl-2 family proteins, key factors involved in apoptosis. The number and morphology of mitochondria are precisely controlled through mitochondrial fusion and fission process by numerous mitochondria-shaping proteins. Mitochondrial fission accompanies apoptotic cell death and appears to be important for progression of the apoptotic pathway. Here, we highlight and discus
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