Hypothalamic nesfatin-1, derived from the nucleobindin2 (NUCB2) precursor, inhibits nocturnal food intake and body weight gain in rats. Nesfatin-1 is able to cross the blood-brain barrier, suggesting a peripheral source of nesfatin-1. Many centrally acting food intake regulatory neuropeptides are also produced in the periphery, especially in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, we investigated the gene expression of NUCB2 and distribution of nesfatin-1-immunoreactive cells in the stomach. Microarray mRNA expression profiles in purified small endocrine cells of the gastric mucosa substantiated by quantitative RT-PCR showed significantly higher NUCB2 mRNA expression compared with brain and heart. Western blot confirmed the expression of NUCB2 protein and its transport into a secretory soluble fraction of gastric mucosal endocrine cell homogenates. Immunohistochemical colabeling for nesfatin-1 and ghrelin, histidine decarboxylase, or somatostatin revealed two subtypes of nesfatin-1-positive endocrine cells. Cells in the midportion of the glands coexpressed nesfatin-1 and ghrelin, whereas few cells in the glandular base coexpressed nesfatin-1 and somatostatin or histidine decarboxylase. High-resolution three-dimensional volume imaging revealed two separate populations of intracytoplasmic vesicles in these cells, one containing nesfatin-1 and the other ghrelin immunoreactivity. Microarray rat genome expressio
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