The midgut, which plays a major role in the feeding behavior of insects, is believed to be controlled by various factors including neuropeptides. In the present study, we identified a neuropeptide crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) as a novel gut factor in insects. CCAP was isolated from the midgut of the cockroach, Periplaneta americana. RT-PCR analysis detected the expression of the cockroach CCAP mRNA in the ventral nerve cord and the midgut, revealing the production of CCAP in the midgut as well as the central nervous system. Moreover, we observed expression of the CCAP gene in the endocrine cells of the midgut by in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemical analysis showed that CCAP was distributed around the lateral surfaces of the endocrine cells. Elevation of �-amylase activity was observed upon addition of FEEDING BEHAVIOR IS regulated not only by the centra
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