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Origins of Quasars and Galaxy Clusters

By H. Arp


The distribution on the sky of clusters of galaxies shows significant association with relatively nearby, large, active galaxies. The pattern is that of clusters paired equidistant across a central galaxy with the apparent magnitudes and redshifts of their constituent galaxies being closely matched. The clusters and the galaxies in them tend to be strong X-ray and radio emitters and their redshifts occur at preferred redshift values. The central, low redshift galaxies often show evidence of ejection in the direction of these higher redshift clusters and the clusters often show elongation along these lines. In most of these respects the clusters resemble quasars which have been increasingly shown for the last 34 years to be similarly associated with active parent galaxies. It is argued here that, empirically, the quasars are ejected from active galaxies. They evolve to lower redshift with time, fragmenting at the end of their development into clusters of low luminosity galaxies. The cluster galaxies can be at the same distance as their lower redshift parents because they still retain a component of their earlier, quasar intrinsic redshift. 1 Inroduction The distribution on the sky of clusters of galaxies started to be catalogued about 40 years ago by George Abell and collaborators. The cores of these clusters wer

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